IIMSAM Spirulina Resource Centre
Malnutrition severely diminishes the human capital of a country and its multifarious impacts hinder the universal achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Developing countries are especially vulnerable to this easily avoidable catastrophe.
Spirulina offers remarkable health benefits to an undernourished person. It is rich in beta carotene that can overcome eye problems caused by Vitamin A deficiency. The protein and B-vitamin complex makes a major nutritional improvement in an infant's diet. It is the only food source, except for mother's milk, containing substantial amounts of an essential fatty acid GLA that helps regulate the entire hormone system.
One tablespoon a day can eliminate iron anemia, the most common mineral deficiency. Spirulina is the most digestible protein food, especially important for malnourished people whose intestines can no longer absorb nutrients effectively. Clinical studies have shown it helps rebuild healthy intestinal flora. These health benefits have made it an excellent food for rapid recovery of children from malnutrition related diseases in Mexico , Togo , Romania , China , Rwanda , Zaire , India , Ukraine , and Belarus .
Spirulina is being produced in more than 22 countries and used in over 77 countries.
The United Nations World Health Organization (WHO) has confirmed that Spirulina represents an interesting food for multiple reasons, and it is able to be administered to children without any risk. Other proposed uses of Spirulina are for cancer prevention, fibromyalgia, hay fever, herpes infection, high cholesterol, hives, HIV infection, liver protection, weight loss.
Advantages of Spirulina
- Spirulina does not need fertile land for cultivation and therefore conserves fertile land and soil. It has over 60 % protein that is higher than any other food besides benefits of rapid growth and higher yield.
- Spirulina requires less energy input per kilo than soy, corn, or bovine protein. As cheap energy sources are depleted, costs of energy dependent foods will rise up with energy prices .
- Spirulina uses less water per kilo of protein than other foods as the water is recycled back to the ponds after harvesting .
- Spirulina is a big oxygen producer that is even more efficient than trees and forests to absorb Carbon dioxide and release Oxygen.
- Spirulina production uses non-fertile land and brackish water and is a potent remedy to deforestation to cultivate food. As people eat lower on the food chain, the pressures to destroy wilderness can be halted and help re-green our planet.
- Spirulina has no externalized hidden costs in terms of depletion of fresh water, fertile top soil and forests, pollution from pesticides, herbicides, and toxins. No long term medical costs from unhealthy foods with chemical additives.
“For WHO, Spirulina represents an interesting food for multiple reasons, rich in iron and protein, and is able to be administered to children without any risk. We at WHO consider it a very suitable food” - United Nations World Health Organization (WHO),
Geneva , Switzerland June 8 th , 1993
|A child suffering from
|The same child 90 days
after taking Spirulina
Composition of Spirulina
|Protein||about 60% ( 51 to 71 )|
per 100 grams of
|FAO Standard proteins|
Table from Busson, F., Spirulina Platensis (Gom) Geitler et. Spirulina geitleri, J.Dr Toni, Cynophycées Alimentaires, Armée Française, Service de Santé, Parc de Pharo, Marseill,1971.
|Carbohydrates||Per 100 grams|
|Glucosamine Muramic acid||2.0|
|Scialic acid and others||0.5|
|Lipids (Principal Ones)||mg/Kg|
|Palmitic acid (saturated fatty acid)||16-,500 to 21,141|
|Linoleic acid (unsaturated FA)||10,920 to 13,784|
|Gamma linoleic acid (omega 6)||8,750 to 11,970|
|Alpha linolenic acid (omega 3)||699 to 7,000|
|Chlorophyll-a||6,100 to 7,600|
|Beta sitosterol||30 to 97|
|Beta carotene||average 1,700|
|Cyanocobalmin ( B12 )||0.45 ( analogs not included )|
|Nicotinic acid ( PP )||118<|
|Pyridoxine ( B6 )||3|
|Riboflavine ( B2 )||40|
|Thiamin ( B1 )||55|
|Tocopherol ( E )||190|
|Ascorbic acid ( C )||90|
- Spirulina- natural sorbent of radionucleides.
by L.P. Loseva and I.V. Dardynskaya . Sep 1993. Research Institute of Radiation Medicine, Minsk, Belarus. 6th Int'l Congress of Applied Algology, Czech Republic. Belarus.
- Spirulina platensis and specialties to support detoxifying pollutants and to strengthen the immune system.
by L.P. Loseva. Sep 1999. Research Institute of Radiation Medicine, Minsk, Belarus. 8th Int'l Congress of Applied Algology, Italy. Belarus.
- Spirulina in Jiangxi China.
by Miao Jian Ren . 1987. Academy of Agricultural Science. Presented at Soc. Appl. Algology, Lille France Sep. 1987. China.
- The study on curative effect of zinc containing spirulina for zinc deficient children.
by Wen Yonghuang, et al. 1994. Capital Medical College, Beijing. Presented at 5th Int'l Phycological Congress, Qingdao, June 1994. China.
Democratic Republic of Congo
- Effectiveness of spirulina algae as food for children with protein-energy malnutrition in a tropical environment.
by P. Bucaille. 1990. University Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France. Oct. 1990. Zaire. (in French).
- Clinical and biochemical evaluations of spirulina with regard to its application in the treatment of obesity.
by E.W. Becker, et al. 1986. Inst. Chem. Pfanz. Pub. in Nutrition Reports Int'l, Vol. 33, No. 4, pg 565. Germany.
- Evaluation of chemoprevention of oral cancer with spirulina.
by Babu, M. et al. 1995. Pub. in Nutrition and Cancer, Vol. 24, No. 2, 197-202. India.
- Bioavailability of spirulina carotenes in preschool children.
by V. Annapurna, et al. 1991. National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, India. J. Clin. Biochem Nutrition. 10 145-151. India.
- Large scale nutritional supplementation with spirulina alga.
by C.V. Seshadri . 1993. All India Coordinated Project on Spirulina. Shri Amm Murugappa Chettiar Research Center (MCRC) Madras, India.
- Clinical experiences of administration of spirulina to patients with hupochronic anemia.
by T. Takeuchi, et al. 1978. Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. Japan.
- Cholesterol lowering effect of spirulina.
by N. Nayaka, et al. 1988. Tokai Univ. Pub. in Nutrition Reports Int'l, Vol. 37, No. 6, 1329-1337. Japan.
- Influence of extensive training on the number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin level and its correction.
by Z. Trojacanec et al. 1998 . Institute for Medical, Experimental and Applied Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Skopje, Macedonia. Pub in XXIV FIMS World Congress of Sports Medicine, June 1998.
- Clinical experimentation with spirulina.
by R. Ramos Galvan. 1973 . National Institute of Nutrition, Mexico City, Mexico (in Spanish).
- Observations on the utilization of spirulina as an adjuvant nutritive factor in treating some diseases accompanied by a nutritional deficiency.
by V. Fica, et al. 1984. Clinica II Medicala, Spitalui Clinic, Bucuresti. Med. Interna 36 (3). Romania. (In Romanian).
- Means to normalize the levels of immunoglobulin E, using the food supplement Spirulina.
by L. Evets, et al. 1994. Grodenski State Medical Univ. Russian Federation Committee of Patents and Trade. Patent (19)RU (11)2005486. Jan. 15, 1994. Russia.
Ten Spirulina centers of ten hectares each, can produce over 360 million Spirulina doses annually, comprising 10 grams of Spirulina per dose, to be mixed with cereal(s) flour, that can recuperate and save lives of over six million people a year.
|SPIRULINA FARMS AROUND THE WORLD
|IIMSAM's Cultivation & Feeding Centre in Kenya||Thailand||Chad|
PubMed (a service of the NIH/US National Library of Medicine containing 19 million literature citations) lists over 800 studies involving Spirulina.
National Institutes of Health (NIH) - Home Page
National Library of Medicine - National Institutes of Health
Research for Progress- Antenna Technologies
Cultivation of Spirulina benefits the Environment
Nutritional Rehabilitation and Spirulina - Burkina Faso Scientific Report on Spirulina Benefits in Fighting HIV-Infected Patients in Burkina Faso, Africa
Latest Scientific Report on the Benefits of Spirulina, 29 August 2008 From American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition
Indian Medical Report On Benefits Of Spirulina Against Diabetes
Rehabilitation with Spirulina Against Malaria
Sustainable Approaches to Combat Malnutrition
Potential Complementarity of High-Flavenol Cocoa Powder and Spirulina for Health Protection (Mexico, 2009)
Hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of Spirulina fusiformis on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice (Malaysia, 2009)
Dietician proposes natural products against viral infection (Japan, 2009)
Spirulina inhibits H1N1 virus, says researcher (Japan, 2009)
Spirulina in Clinical Practice: Evidence-Based Human Applications
Potential of Spirulina Platensis as a Nutritional Supplement in Malnourished HIV-Infected Adults in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Randomised, Single-Blind Study
Anthena Technologies Geneva Based Research Foundation:2011 - New data show an important potential of spirulina in malnourished patients infected by HIV in Africa
VIDEO: IIMSAM's World Renowned Spirulina Experts Talk About The Benefits
VIDEO: Niger Spirulina Programme By The Red Cross Of Municipality Of Monaco
VIDEO: Niger Spirulina Programme By The Red Cross Of Municipality Of Monaco